Singapore Elections: What You Need to Know

Singapore’s electoral process is a significant facet of its political landscape, epitomizing the democratic framework upon which the nation is built. The general elections in Singapore are a time when citizens exercise their right to vote, shaping the future of their country by electing representatives to the Parliament.

The elections in Singapore are overseen by the Elections Department (ELD), a body that ensures the fairness and integrity of the process. The campaigning period leading up to the election is vibrant, with political parties presenting their manifestos and candidates engaging with the public to win their trust and votes. Learn more about the electoral processes in Singapore below.

The Electoral System in Singapore

The Group Representation Constituency (GRC) system is a cornerstone of Singapore’s electoral architecture, introduced in 1988. Its primary purpose is to ensure multiculturalism and minority representation in the Parliament of Singapore. Here’s a closer look at the two fundamental aspects of the GRC system:

Purpose of the GRC system

The GRC system is designed to promote racial and ethnic balance in Parliament, reflecting the city-state’s diverse population. It mandates that each GRC team must include candidates from the Malay, Indian, and other minority communities, thus ensuring that these groups have a voice in the legislative process. This unique feature of the GRC system fosters an inclusive political environment where multiple ethnicities can contribute to national discussions and decision-making.

Representation and diversity in Parliament

Under the GRC system, political parties contest as a group of candidates, ranging typically from three to six members, for larger constituencies. This encourages teamwork and collaboration among candidates and ensures that minority groups are not just represented but are an integral part of the political tapestry. The GRC system underlines Singapore’s approach to collective representation, distinguishing it from other electoral systems where individual candidacy is the norm.

Other components of the electoral framework

Alongside the GRC system, Singapore’s electoral framework comprises other components that together provide a comprehensive approach to representation:

Single Member Constituencies (SMCs)

In contrast to GRCs, Single Member Constituencies (SMCs) are areas represented by a single Member of Parliament (MP). These constituencies allow for a more direct relationship between the MP and the electorate, giving voters the opportunity to choose an individual representative who they believe will best serve their local interests.

Non-Constituency Members of Parliament (NCMPs)

To ensure a wider representation of political views, the NCMP scheme allows a limited number of the best-performing opposition candidates who did not win in their constituencies to take seats in Parliament. This ensures that diverse political opinions are presented, enriching the debates and law-making in the Parliament.

Nominated Members of Parliament (NMPs)

The Nominated Member of Parliament (NMP) scheme is another unique feature of Singapore’s legislative system. NMPs are appointed by the President of Singapore for a term of two and a half years and are intended to represent non-partisan views. They come from various sectors of society, such as the arts, academia, business, and social service sectors, contributing an independent voice and specialist knowledge to the parliamentary discourse.

Together, these elements of the electoral system work in synergy to shape a Parliament that is not only politically pluralistic but also socially inclusive, ensuring that Singapore’s governance is well-rounded and reflective of its multifaceted society.

Types of Elections in Singapore

Singapore’s democratic process is both unique and dynamic, encapsulating the principles of representation and governance through its electoral system. This page offers a comprehensive overview of Singapore’s electoral landscape, delving into parliamentary and presidential elections, as well as the rare occurrence of referendums.

Parliamentary Elections

Conducted at maximum intervals of five years, parliamentary elections are pivotal in shaping the legislative direction of Singapore. Since 1959, the political stage has been prominently led by the People’s Action Party (PAP), steering Singapore through decades of transformation and development. Despite PAP’s longstanding governance, opposition parties persist in challenging the status quo, aiming to diversify the voices in Parliament. Such challenges bring to light the hurdles faced by opposition parties, from gaining traction among a populace accustomed to a single-party dominance to voicing criticisms about the electoral framework itself.

Presidential Elections

Marking a distinct layer of Singapore’s electoral system, presidential elections are held every six years to appoint the head of state, who plays a critical role in safeguarding the nation’s reserves and the integrity of its public service. Aspiring candidates must satisfy stringent criteria, reflecting the office’s prestige and responsibilities. The discourse around these elections often centers on the qualifications for candidacy and the debates they spark. Reflecting on the recent 2023 presidential election, we examine not only the outcomes but also the underlying tensions and dialogues that are part and parcel of this significant event.


While referendums are not a common aspect of Singapore’s political practice, the single instance that took place in 1962—the merger referendum—remains a historical milestone, marking Singapore’s short-lived union with Malaysia. Although no subsequent referendums have been called, the idea continues to be floated for pressing national issues, such as the introduction of integrated resorts with casinos. These moments, although hypothetical, underscore the potential for direct democracy in Singapore’s political narrative, revealing the layers and complexities of public consensus and national decision-making.

Election Administration

Role of the Elections Department (ELD)

  1. Ensuring Fairness and Integrity

The Elections Department (ELD) is pivotal in maintaining the democratic sanctity of Singapore’s elections. Tasked with upholding the principles of fairness and integrity, the ELD operates with meticulous attention to detail to ensure that every aspect of the election process is impartial and transparent. This includes the meticulous design of regulatory frameworks that govern political financing, campaign practices, and the conduct of both candidates and parties. The ELD also actively monitors electoral activities to preempt any potential malpractices and to safeguard the trust in the electoral system.

  1. Preparing and Conducting Elections

The ELD’s responsibilities extend to the logistical orchestration of the entire electoral process. This encompasses the management of voter registration, ensuring that all eligible citizens are included in the electoral rolls. The department also oversees the training of election officials and the setup of polling stations, equipped with necessary facilities to ensure a smooth voting experience. From the deployment of polling equipment to the final tallying of votes, the ELD ensures the operational excellence of the election machinery.

Electoral Boundaries and Their Review Process

The delineation of electoral boundaries in Singapore is a critical exercise carried out by the Electoral Boundaries Review Committee (EBRC). The EBRC reviews these boundaries periodically to account for changes in demographics and residential patterns. This process is crucial to maintain equitable representation for the electorate. The recommendations of the EBRC are made in consideration of factors such as population density and the need to avoid excessive disproportionality in the size of constituencies. This exercise is undertaken with a view to ensuring that each vote carries equitable weight regardless of where it is cast.

Voter Eligibility

Voter eligibility in Singapore is clear-cut; citizens aged 21 and above are entitled to vote, provided they are not disqualified due to certain legal or constitutional reasons. The ELD is in charge of educating the public about the voting process, which is designed to be as user-friendly as possible while maintaining rigorous standards of accuracy and confidentiality.

On Election Day, voters visit their assigned polling stations, where they are verified against the electoral roll, and given a ballot paper. Voting is done secretly in private booths to ensure confidentiality, and the marked ballots are then cast into secured boxes, reflecting the core of democratic expression in the civic life of Singapore.

The process is safeguarded by strict procedures and the presence of independent observers, ensuring that the will of the people is accurately and fairly represented in the election outcomes.

Voting Process

Accessibility and Efficiency of the Voting Process

  1. Strategic location of polling stations for easy access
  2. Accommodations for individuals with disabilities
  3. Informed electorate about polling stations and voting times
  4. Use of technology for swift voter registration and identity verification
  5. Staggered voting times to manage voter flow and reduce queues

Measures for Maintaining Vote Secrecy and Security

  1. Design of voting booths to ensure private ballot marking
  2. Use of unmarked ballot papers to guarantee voter anonymity
  3. Procedure for voters to fold and deposit ballots into sealed boxes
  4. Stringent security protocols for ballot handling and chain of custody
  5. Police presence to secure polling stations and prevent tampering
  6. Transparent counting process with oversight from candidates and agents

Video: Understanding Singapore’s General Election | Back to Basics Ep 1 | The Straits Times

Dive into the fundamentals of Singapore’s political system with the Straits Times’ “Back to Basics” series. This informative video dissects the intricacies of the Singapore General Election, equipping you with everything you need to understand Parliament’s role, the structure of constituencies, the spectrum of political parties, and the voting process.


In conclusion, the electoral process in Singapore is a crucial aspect of the country’s democratic framework. The Elections Department plays a vital role in ensuring the fairness and integrity of the process, while the campaigning period leading up to the election is a vibrant time for political parties and candidates to engage with the public. As citizens exercise their right to vote, they shape the future of their country by electing representatives to the Parliament. It’s important for all eligible voters to participate in the democratic process and have their voices heard.

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